1. 名词(词组)

bias->prejudice/discrimination 偏见;歧视

big city->metropolis 大都市

chance->alternative 机会;选择

character->trait / individuality / personality 品质;特性;个性

child->juvenile 孩子;青少年

clash->conflict/collision 冲突

custom->convention/tradition 传统;习俗

delegate->representative 代表

detail->specific 细节

lawmaking->legislation 立法

offspring->descendant 后代;子孙

value->merit 价值

2. 动词(词组)

absorb->assimilate 吸收

agree partly->agree with sth reservedly 有保留地赞同

arouse->ignite / stimulate / spur / motivate / stimulate 引起;鼓励

change->alter 改变

consider->take into account / consideration考虑

devote to->dedicate to / commit to把……奉献于;专注于

emphasize->accentuate / stress强调

expect->anticipate 期望;预期

explain->interpret / illustrate 解释;说明

get into chaos->with chaos ensuing 陷入混乱

hand in->render / submit提出

join->participate in参加;参与

lead to->contribute to / conduce to / result in 导致;产生……的结果

limit->stress / hinder / hamper / block限制;阻止;阻碍

operate->manipulate 操作;操纵

provide->lend / offer 提供;给予

publicize->propagandize 宣传;公布

sway->vacillate 影响;摇摆,使摇摆

think->contemplate/muse/meditate/retrospect 思考;考虑;想起

thrive->prosperous (a.) / flourishing (v./a.) / prosperity (n.)

undermine->sap/enervate/debilitate 破坏;使衰弱,衰竭

use->employ/utilize 使用;利用

want->intend to/tend to/be inclined to 希望;倾向于

want to->desire 想要

3. 形容词/副词

first->primarily / initially首先

hardly->scarcely / barely 几乎不

hurt->vulnerable 受伤的;易受攻击的

inevitable->indispensable 必然的;不可缺少的

in fact->actually/virtually / factually事实上;实际上

key->crucial/vital/consequential 关键的;重要的

large->miraculous/marvelous 大的;不可思议的(表程度)

maybe->probably 也许;大概(ad.)

more and more->increasing/growing 越来越多的

obvious->conspicuous 明显的;显著的

old->ancient 老的;古老的

proper->apposite 适当的;合适的

persuasive->thorough/sound/specific/convincing 有说服力的

true->accurate 正确的;准确的

vague->gratuitous/unwarranted/oversimplified 模糊的

well-known->outstanding 著名的

4. 其他

although->albeit/notwithstanding 尽管(conj.)

because->in that->since->seeing 因为(conj.)

but->nonetheless/nevertheless 然而;但是(conj.)

through->in term of/via 通过(prep.)

to sum->to summarize/in conclusion 总之;最后


解决:deal with, cope with, handle, tackle, solve, resolve, address

消除:get rid of, eradicate, eliminate

依赖:rely on, depend on, count on

十分:very much, immensely, hugely, largely, greatly, enormously, tremendously

损害:damage, hurt, injure, harm, impair

给予:give, offer, render, impart, provide

发展:develop, cultivate, foster

优势:advantage, merit, virtue, benefit, upside, strength

缺陷:disadvantage, detect, demerit, drawback, downside, weakness



== traditional, historical, past, accepted, common, regular, routine, mainstream, ordinary


== first, old, ancient, primitive, previous, former, remote


== virtual, create, reproduce, pretend, imitate


== synthetic, fabricated, contrived, fake, mock, bogus, counterfeit, pseudo


== curtail, cut, decrease, halve, impair, lessen, moderate, trim, slash


== what's next, prospect, approaching, expected, destined, forthcoming


== international, cosmopolitan, global, universal, ubiquitous, widespread, around the world


== evolve, advance, grow, improve, progress, flourish


== discover, come across, encounter, hit on, expose, notice, note, observe, recognize, spot, uncover


== request, claim, need, order, require, call for


== decrease, degeneration, drop, fall, recession, depression, reduction, slump, worsening


== importance, milestone, impact, justification, gist, implication, point, purport


== common, usual, prevailing, widespread, systematic, collective, general, popular


== challenge, complaint, disapproval, opposition, protest, query, question


== bar, barricade, barrier, block, blockage, check, obstruction, problem, snag, hurdle


== business, economic, financial, mercantile, profitable, pecuniary


== unavoidable, certain, destined, fated, inescapable, sure


== armed, belligerent, army, weapon, warlike


== function (provide, support, weaken, smooth, solve), job, position, duty, post, task, contribution


== modern, current, now, nowadays, today, contemporaneous, new, novel, present, up-to-date, state-of-the-art


== handicap, hardship, adversity, challenge, complication, dilemma, perplexity, plight, trouble


== describe, operate, explain, clarify, demonstrate, elucidate, expound, illustrate, interpret, account for


== setting, circumstances, environment


== stunning, impressive, magnificent, dazzling, breathtaking


== home, locale, environment, surroundings


== contaminate, pollute, taint, poison

cite== quote, mention, refer to, allude to

better== improvement, advancement, progress

convert== change, alter, transform, renovate

functional== operational, serviceable

fascinate== captivate, charm, enthrall, entice, allure

undertake== take on, assume, carry out

designate== title, entitle, term, call

identify== recognize, pinpoint, detect, ascertain

senior== leading, chief, primary, superior, major

incorporate== include, absorb, integrate, unite

multifarious== diverse, varied, various, miscellaneous, diversified

avenue== method, approach, methodology

underlie== lie beneath, bring about, trigger, cause, inspire

domain== area, field, sphere, province, realm, territory

orientation== direction, positioning, placement, location


1. important = key / essential / crucial / critical / vital / significant

2. common = popular / prevalent / universal / ubiquitous

3. abundant = ample / fruitful / plentiful / surplus

4. stick to= adhere to / cling to

5. neglect = ignore

6. near =adjacent / adjoin

7. pursue = woo / seek

8. accurate = precise / exact

9. vague = ambiguous / obscure / opaque

10. top = peak / summit

11. competitor= rival / opponent

12. blame= condemn (if you condemn sth., you say it is very bad and unacceptable)

?13. opinion= perspective, standpoint (means looking at an event or situation in a particular way)

?14. fame= prestige (describe those who are admired), reputation

?15. build= erect (you can erect sth. as buildings, formal), establish

?16. insult= humiliate (do sth. or say sth. which makes people feel ashamed or stupid)

?17. complain= grumble (complain sth. in a bad-tempered way)

?18. primary= radical (very important and great in degree), fundamental

?19. relieve= alleviate (alleviate means you make pain or sufferings less intense or severe)

?20. force= coerce into (coerce means you make someone do sth he does not want to [He was coerced into making a confession.]), compel

?21. enlarge=magnify (magnify means make sth. larger than it really is)

?22. complex= complicated / intricate (if sth. is intricate, it often has many small parts and details.)

?23. lonely= solitary (if someone is solitary, there is no one near him/her.)

?24. small= minuscule (very small), minute [mai’nju:t]

?25. praise= extol (stronger than praise), compliment (polite and political), eulogize

?26. hard-working= assiduous (someone who is assiduous works hard or does things very thoroughly.), diligent, industrious

?27. difficult= arduous (if sth. is arduous, it is difficult and tiring, and involves a lot of efforts.)

?28. poor (soil)= barren, infertile (used to describe the soil is so poor that plants cannot be planted on it.)

?29. fragile= brittle, vulnerable (someone who is vulnerable is easily hurt emotionally or physically)

?30. show= demonstrate (to demonstrate a fact means to make it clear to people.) ; exhibit; display

?31. big= massive (large in size, quantity, or extent), colossal (use this word, you emphasize sth. is large), tremendous (informal)

?32. avoid= shun (if someone shuns sth., he deliberately avoid sth. or keep away from it.)

?33. fair= impartial (someone who is impartial is able to give a fair opinion or decision on sth.) ; unbiased

?34. attack= assault (physically attack someone), assail (attack violently)

?35. dislike= abhor (abhor means you hate sth to an extreme extent for moral reasons [They abhor all forms of racial discrimination]), loathe (dislike very much [I loathe having to get up so early in the morning.]); resent

?36. ruin= devastate (it means damage sth. very badly, or utterly destroy it.)

?37. ability =capacity =capability =faculty =gift =aptitude =competence =genius = talent

?38. abolish = cancel = repeal 这些动词均含“取消、废除”之意。



?repeal: 书面用词,指撤销立法机关通过的协议、法案或法律等。

?39. always= invariably (the same as always, but better than always)

?40. forever= perpetual (a perpetual state never changes), immutable (sth immutable will never change or be changed immutable truths ); ever-lasting; permanent

?41. surprise= startle (it means surprise you slightly), astound (surprise you to a large degree), astonish (the same as astound)

?42. enthusiasm= zeal (a great enthusiasm), fervency (sincere enthusiasm), passion; zest

?43. quiet= tranquil (calm and peaceful), serene (calm and quiet)

?44. expensive= exorbitant (it means too expensive that it should be)

?45. luxurious= lavish (impressive and very expensive), sumptuous (grand and very expensive)

?46. boring= tedious (if you describe sth tedious, you mean it is boring and frustrating); monotonous

?47. respect= esteem (if you esteem someone, you respect and admire him/her. formal); revere

?48. worry= fret (if you fret about sth, you worry about it. The old lady is always fretting over sth unimportant. ); concern

?49. cold= chilly (unpleasantly cold), icy (extremely cold)

?50. hot= boiling (very hot)

?51. dangerous= perilous (very dangerous, hazardous (dangerous, esp. to people's safety and health)

?52. nowadays= currently

?53. only= unique (the only one of its kind); sole; distinctive

?54. stop= cease (if sth ceases, it stops happening or existing.)

?55. part= component (the components of sth are the parts that it is made of.); element

?56. result= consequence (the results or effects of sth)

?57. obvious= apparent; manifest [It was their manifest failure to modernize the country's industries.]

?58. based on= derived from (取材于…)

?60. quite= fairly

?61. pathetic= lamentable 可悲的/令人惋惜的 (very uncomfortable and disappointing)

?62. field= domain (a particular field of thought, activities or interest)

?63. appear= emerge (come into existence)

?64. whole=entire (the whole of sth)

?65. wet= moist (slightly wet); damp (slightly wet); humid (very damp and hot)

?66. wrong= erroneous (incorrect or partly correct)

?67. difficult= formidable [There's no formidable obstacles in the world. ]

?68. change= convert (change into another form); alter; transform

?69. typical= quintessential (this word means represent a typical example of sth.)

?70. careful= cautious (very careful in order to avoid danger); prudent (careful and sensible)

?71. ability= capacity; capability (the same as ability)

?72. strange= eccentric (if some one is eccentric, s/he behaves in a strange way, or his/her opinion is different from most people.)

?73. rich= affluent (if you are affluent, you have a lot of money)

?74. use= utilize (the same as use)

?75. dubious= skeptical (if you are skeptical about sth, you have doubts on it.)

?76. satisfy= gratify (if you are gratified by sth, it gives you pleasure and satisfaction.)

?77. short=fleeting; ephemeral (if sth is ephemeral, it lasts a short time. Most newspapers are of ephemeral interest.)

?78. scholarship= fellowship

?79. angry= enraged (extremely angry)

?80. smelly= malodorous (used to describe an unpleasant smell)

?81. ugly= hideous (if sth is hideous, it is very ugly or unattractive)

?82. attractive= appealing (pleasing and attractive); absorbing (sth absorbing can attract you a great deal); charming

?83. diverse= miscellaneous (a miscellaneous groups consists of many different kinds of things); various

?84. disorder= disarray; chaos

?85. crazily= frantically (used to describe someone who behaves in a wild and uncontrolled way)

?86. rapid= meteoric (meteoric is only used to describe someone achieves success quickly. (a meteoric rise to fame 一夜成名meteor)

?87. ordinary= mundane (very ordinary and not at interesting or unusual.

(I found the job very mundane. 我觉得这工作非常单调。)

?88. despite= notwithstanding (formal)

?He was misunderstood notwithstanding his good intentions.

?89. best= optimal (used to describe the best level sth can achieve)

?90. sharp= acute (severe and intense)

?91.unbelievable= inconceivable (if you deem sth inconceivable, you think it very unlike to happen.)

?92. puzzle= perplex (sth perplex someone means it confuses and worries him/her because he/she does not understand it.) ; bewilder

?He perplexed me with this problem.

?93. method= avenue (a way of getting sth done)

?Books are avenues to knowledge.

?94. famous= distinguished (used to describe people who are successful in their career.)

?95. ancient= archaic (extremely old and extremely old-fashioned)

?96. decorate= embellish (embellish means make something look more attractive via decorating it with something else.)

?97. possible= feasible (if something is feasible, it can be done, made or achieved.)

?98. so= consequently; accordingly

?99. rare= infrequent

?100. greedy= rapacious (greedy and selfish)


1.表示“能力”意思的词语:ability, capability, competence, faculty, capacity, gift, talent

2.表示“目的、目标”意思的词语:aim, purpose, intent, intention, goal, end

3.表示“关系、联系”意思的词语:ties, bonds, links, connection, association, relations, combination, relationship, interrelations, relevance

4.表示“差别”意思的词语:difference, distinction, differentiation

5.表示“资本、资金”意思的词语:capital, fund, relief, money,

6.表示“个人”意思的词语:person, people, folks, individuals, man, human being

7.表示“意义、含义”意思的词语:meaning, significance, implication, connotation

8.表示“部分、成分”意思的词语:part, element, ingredient, component, factor, segment

9.表示“不平等、歧视”意思的词语:inequality, bias, prejudice, discrimination

10.表示“对手”意思的词语:opponent, rivals / “支持者”proponent, advocate

11.表示“商品”意思的词语:commodity, goods, article, item

12.表示“将来”意思的词语:future, prospect

13.表示“理由”意思的词语:reason, ground, cause, factor, agent

14.表示“后代、子孙”意思的词语:offspring, descendant, posterity, children

15.表示“补充”意思的词语:complement, supplement,append

16.表示与“树木”有关的词语:bush, shrub, jungle

17.表示“边界”意思的词语:boundary, border, frontier, verge

18.表示“错误”意思的词语:blunder, error, mistake, fault

19.表示“基础”意思的词语:basis, foundation, ground

20.表示“会议”意思的词语:assembly, conference, congress, seminar, session, summit, symposium, meeting, gathering, party

21.表示“区域”意思的词语:area, district, region, vicinity, zone

22.表示“成就”意思的词语:accomplishment, attainment, achievement, success

23.表示“要点、摘要”意思的词语:abstract, digest, outline, summary

24.表示“程度”意思的词语:to the degree, to some extent

25.表示“生气”意思的词语:anger, fury, indignation, resentment, hate, hatred

26.表示“ 痛苦,悲伤 ”意思的词语:pain, sadness, unhappiness, misery, anguish

27.表示“标准”意思的词语:standard, criteria


1.表示“导致”意思的词语:lead to, bring about, give rise to, give birth to, contribute to, cause…to, result in, engender, render, prompt, cause, make, result from(起因于)

2.表示“面对、偶遇”意思的词语:confront, be confronted with, face, be faced with, meet with, encounter

3.表示“集中于”意思的词语:center on, focus on, concentrate on

4.表示“对付、处理”意思的词语:deal with, cope with, grapple with, handle, tackle, solve, resolve, address, manipulate

5.表示“消失”意思的词语:disappear, vanish, fade, perish

6.表示“减少、增加”意思的词语:diminish, lessen, decrease, drop, reduce, fall, /accumulate, increase, rise, soar, rocket

7.表示“依靠、依赖”意思的词语:rely on(upon), depend on(upon), count on (upon), rest on(upon)

8.表示“变化”意思的词语:change, turn, vary/range, alter, transform, shift, convert

9.表示“指控”意思的词语:charge with, accuse of, sue for, condemn, denounce, prosecute

10.表示“克服、战胜”意思的词语:overcome, conquer, defeat,

11.表示“获得、得到”意思的词语:achieve, obtain, get, accomplish, earn, attain, secure, acquire, gain

12.表示“抓住”意思的词语:catch, seize, capture, catch hold of, grab, grasp

13.表示“限制”意思的词语:limit, confine, restrict.

14.表示“强迫”意思的词语:compel, constrain, force, oblige

15.表示“责怪”意思的词语:blame, condemn, reproach, scold

16.表示“困惑、迷惑”意思的词语:bewilder, puzzle, confuse, embarrass, perplex

17.表示“赞扬、称赞”意思的词语:applaud, clap, commend, praise

18.表示“扩大、加强”意思的词语:amplify, enlarge, stretch, magnify, reinforce, expand

19.表示“声称”意思的词语:affirm, assert, allege, claim, announce, proclaim

20.表示“附加”意思的词语:affiliate, link, attach, append

21.表示“调整、改变”意思的词语:adjust, regulate, rectify, amend, convert, alter, modify, transform, vary

22.表示“提供”意思的词语:accommodate, afford, furnish

23.表示“取消、除掉”意思的词语:abolish, cancel, eliminate, dispose, erase, exclude, extinguish

24.表示“遵守”意思的词语:abide by, adhere to, conform to , comply with

25.表示“繁荣、兴旺”意思的词语:flourish, boom, prosper, succeed.

26.表示“阻止、停止”意思的词语:stop…from, prevent...from, keep from, halt, pause, cease

27.表示“忍受”意思的词语:endure, bear, stand, tolerate, put up with, live with

28.表示“来自于,出自于,起因于”意思的词语:come from, arise from, derive from, originate from, stem from, result from.

29.表示“起作用,有重要性”意思的词语:count, matter, play a role, play a part

30.表示“吃惊,惊奇”意思的词语:surprise, shock, amaze, astonish, astound


1.表示“与……有关/联系”意思的词组 :Be relevant to, be related to, be tied to, be linked to, be associated with, be connected with, be combined with

2.表示“好”意思的词语:wonderful, excellent, good, super, superb, magnificent, first-class, remarkable, fantastic, cool, splendid.

3.表示“充足”意思的词语:sufficient, enough, adequate, rich, abundant, plentiful

4.表示“不足”意思的词语:lack, be short of, for want of, for lack of,

5.表示“可怕、有害”意思的词语:dreadful, terrible, frightening, horrible, awful, harmful, bad, detrimental, adverse, unfavorable, negative.

6.表示“有能力做”意思的词语:be competent in/as/to do , be capable of , be qualified for/as, be able to

7.表示“传统、习惯 ”等有关的词语:traditional, conventional, customary, habitual, social, global

8.表示“许多、大量 ”意思的词语:many/much, a lot of/lots of/, a large number of, a large amount of, plenty of , plentiful, considerable, ample, numerous, countless,

9.表示“合不合适”意思的词语:right, proper, suitable, appropriate, fit, improper, unsuitable, inappropriate, unfit

10.表示“效果、效率”意思的词语:effective, effectual, efficient, sufficient

11.表示“合不合理 ”的词语:logical, reasonable, sensible, rational, /illogical, unreasonable, irrational

12.表示“倾向于”意思的词语:be likely to, be liable to, be inclined to, be apt to, tend to

13.表示“意不意识到”的词语:be aware of, be conscious of, be unaware of, be unconscious of, subconscious(潜意识的)

14.表示“简短”意思的词语:brief, concise, in brief, in short

15.表示“合不合法”意思的词语:legitimate, lawful, legal, illegal

16.表示“精确、准确”意思的词语:accurate, precise, exact

17.表示与“身体”有关意思的词语:bodily, physical, mental, spiritual, materialistic

18.表示“态度”意思的词语:optimistic, pessimistic, objective, subjective, impartial

19.表示与“谨慎、小心”有关意思的词语:careful, cautious, prudent, careless, carefree

20.表示“虚弱”意思的词语:weak, fragile, frail, invalid, feeble, vulnerable

21.表示“基本”意思的词语:basic, elementary, fundamental, primary

22.表示“天生”意思的词语:inborn, innate, inherent, gifted, talented

23.表示“普遍、一般”意思的词语:average, common, general, universal, usual

24.表示“明显的,清楚的”意思的词语:apparent, evident, self-evident, manifest, obvious, distinct, clear/ ambiguous, obscure, unclear

25.表示“严重的、紧急的”意思的词语:acute, critical, crucial, urgent, serious, emergent

26.表示“愚蠢,可笑”的词语:absurd, ridiculous, silly, foolish, stupid, ironic, funny

27.表示“节约,奢侈 ”的词语:economic(经济的), economical(节约的), thrifty(节省的), simple, luxurious, extravagant(浪费的), generous(大方的)

28.表示“富裕”意思的词语:rich, wealthy, affluent, well-off

29.表示“仅仅,唯一,就是”意思的词语:only, just, merely, solely, simply, uniquely, alone

30.表示“可能的”意思的词语:possible, likely, probable, presumable

31.表示“有决心的,坚定的”意思的词语:determined, resolute, firm, decisive

32.表示“不断的,不停的”意思的词语:continual, continuous, uninterrupted, successive, eternal, endless, successful(成功的), succession(连续不断)

33.表示“永久的,永恒的”意思的词语:lasting, ever-lasting, permanent, perpetual, temporary(暂时的)

34.表示“致命的,要死的 ”意思的词语:deadly, fatal, mortal

35.表示“重要的,必要的,关键的”意思的词语:important, significant, vital, critical, crucial, necessary, essential, indispensable

36.表示“ 愿不愿意”意思的词语:Willing, unwilling=reluctant

37.表示“喜欢、感兴趣”意思的词语:be interested in, be keen on, be fond of, be crazy about, be enthusiastic about, be addicted to(上瘾)


delegate, 是委派代表的意思,de+leg+ate, de-是表示‘去掉,向外’的前缀,leg-是表示‘口头的、法律的’词根,毕竟古时候所谓的法律不就是国王的‘口谕’嘛,所以,leg-同时有‘口头的’和‘法律’的含义。delegate,合起来就是‘向外派驻法律人员’的含义,更多单词有:deficit,赤字,不足额,逆差debug,调试,字面是‘去掉虫子’lecture,演讲,讲课lecturer,演讲人legal,法律的illegal,非法的,delegate,委派代表delegated,坚定的,效忠的